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" Third, the study evaluates the potential impact of this phenomenon on the academic study of international relations.

In particular, it assesses the significance of de facto statehood for international theory as a whole and for specific theoretical perspectives such as realism, rationalism, feminism, and post-modernism.

Uli Rauch provided me with vital technical computer assistance.

For their contributions to my mental and physical health, I would also like to thank the members and staff of the Nanaksar Gurdwara and the Marpole-Oakridge Fitness Center.

249 Conclusion 259 vi Chapter Eight — Potential Transformations of the De Facto State 262 Introduction 263 Three Different Types of Military Defeat 263 Continued Existence as a De Facto State 269 Evolution into Some Alternate Status Short of Sovereign Statehood 272 Successful Graduation to Sovereign Statehood 285 What Determines Success or Failure in Securing Recognition 290 Conclusion 293 Chapter Nine — The De Facto State and International Theory 296 Introduction 297 International Theory and the De Facto State 297 The De Facto State and Specific Theoretical Traditions 304 Realism 304 Rationalism 306 Revolutionism 309 Feminism 312 Critical or Post-Modern Approaches 315 International Law 318 Conclusion 320 Chapter Ten ~ Conclusion 322 Main Objectives 323 Key Findings of This Study 323 Future Prospects for These Entities 327 What, if Anything, Can or Should Be Done About This Phenomenon?

332 Select Bibliography 347 List of Tables Table # 1 — Theoretical Criteria Table #2- The Diversity of Facto States viii List of Abbreviations Used in This Study A D B — Asian Development Bank AIT ~ American Institute in Taiwan APEC — Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation C C N A A ~ Coordination Council for North American Affairs CSCE — Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now OSCE) DRET ~ Democratic Republic of East Timor EC ~ European Community (now EU) E C J ~ European Court of Justice E L F ~ Eritrean Liberation Front E O K A — Ethniki Orgdnosis Kipriakou Agonos E P L A — Eritrean People's Liberation Army (military wing of EPLF) EPLF — Eritrean People's Liberation Front (now PFDJ) EPRDF — Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front EPRLF ~ Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front E U ~ European Union (formerly EC) F M L N — Faribundo Marti National Liberation Front FRETELIN ~ Frente Revolucianaria de Timor Leste Independente GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (now WTO) GNP — Gross national product ICRC — International Committee of the Red Cross IMF — International Monetary Fund IPKF — Indian Peace-Keeping Force (in Sri Lanka) JVP — Janatha Vimukti Peramuna L T T E — Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam N A T O ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization OAS ~ Organization of American States O A U ~ Organization of African Unity OSCE ~ Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (formerly CSCE) P A ~ Palestinian Authority PAIGC — Partido Ajricano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde PFDJ ~ People's Front for Democracy and Justice (formerly EPLF) PGE — Provisional Government of Eritrea (1991 - 1993) PLO — Palestinian Liberation Organization PLOTE — People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam PRC — People's Republic of China ROC — Republic of China (Taiwan) SADR — Saharan Arab Democratic Republic SEF ~ Straits Exchange Foundation SNL — Somali National League S N M — Somali National Movement SPM — Somali Patriotic Movement SWAPO - South West Africa People's Organization TELO ~ Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization ix TFSC - Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (1975 - 1983) T M T ~ Turk Mukavemet Teskilati TPLF — Tigrean People's Liberation Front T R A — Taiwan Relations Act TRNC — Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983 - present) TULF — Tamil United Liberation Front UDI — Unilateral declaration of independence U K — United Kingdom U N — United Nations UNDP ~ United Nations Development' Program UNFICYP ~ United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus UNITA — Uniao National para a Independencia Total de Angola U N O S O M — United Nations Operation in Somalia US — United States USAID — United States Agency for International Development use — United Somali Congress WTO ~ World Trade Organization (formerly GATT) Acknowledgments This dissertation could not have been written without the support and cooperation of a number of people both inside and outside of the academic community.

"; "How are de facto states dealt with by other actors in international politics?

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Special thanks to Jim Crawley and the New York Stock Exchange for enabling me to complete this degree.For their various forms of assistance, I am eternally grateful.In particular, I would like to thank the inter-library loan staff at the University of British Columbia.Here we are concerned with such questions as "What factors in the contemporary international system produce the phenomenon of de facto statehood?"; "What impact do de facto states have on international law and international society?The quasi-state's empirical limitations, however, do not detract from its de jure sovereign legitimacy which is externally guaranteed by the other members of international society.iv Table of Contents Abstract ii List of Tables vii List of Abbreviations Used in This Study viii Acknowledgments x Chapter One ~ Introduction 1 Setting the Stage 2 The De Facto State in the Wider Academic Context 11 Methodology 16 Value Biases and Assumptions of the Author 22 Outline for the Remainder of the Study 34 Chapter Two — Defining the De Facto State .It is this gap in the literature which this study aims to redress. First, this study addresses the question "What is the de facto state?" It advances a working definition and ten theoretical criteria to delineate the de facto state as a separate category of actor in international politics worthy of analysis in its own right.Ken Shivers and Siria Lopez at the US Department of State and Dr.Sazil Korkut at the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus representative office in New York were gracious in sharing their thoughts with me in interviews.

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