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The re-established eastern states joined the Federal Republic of Germany on the 3rd of October 1990, a day which is since celebrated as the national holiday, German Unification Day (Tag der Deutschen Einheit).Together with the reunification, the last post-war limitations to Germany's sovereignty were removed and the US, UK, France and most importantly, the Soviet Union gave their approval.After the devastating defeat in World War II (1939-1945), Germany was divided into four sectors, controlled by the French, British, US and Soviet forces.

Hitler's militaristic ambitions to create a new German Empire in Central and Eastern Europe led to war, successively, with Poland, France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States - despite initial dazzling successes, Germany was unable to withstand the attacks of the Allies and Soviets on two fronts in addition to a smaller third front to the south of the Alps in Italy. The reputation of Germany as an intellectual land of freedom and high culture (Land der Dichter und Denker) had been decimated and tarnished for decades to come.

The roots of German history and culture date back to the Germanic tribes and after that to the Holy Roman Empire.

Since the early middle ages Germany started to split into hundreds of small states.

The western sectors of Berlin (West Berlin), was de facto an exclave of the FRG, but formally governed by the Western Allies.

On August 13, 1961 the Berlin Wall was erected as part of a heavily guarded frontier system of border fortifications.

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